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YouTube Statistics and Channel analytics report by HypeAuditor. Discover channel statistics, subscribers growth analysis, audience engagement and in-depth. Oskar Gabriel Steinbeck, known by his stage name Panda Eyes (born May 28, ), is a Swiss composer, record producer and DJ from Zurich, Switzerland.
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- Co-chaperone involvement in knob biogenesis implicates host-derived chaperones in malaria virulence
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- Dental emergencies
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Periapical periodontitis pain is spontaneous, severe, persists for hours, is well localized, and is exacerbated by biting.
The adjacent gum is often tender to palpation. An abscess may form gumboil , sometimes with facial swelling, fever, and illness figure 2. Fascial space infections are fortunately rare because they threaten the airway: patients should be referred to a specialist see box. In the absence of immediate dental attention, it is best to incise a fluctuant abscess and to give antimicrobial agents such as amoxicillin and analgesic medication.
The acute situation usually then resolves, but the abscess will recur because the necrotic pulp will become reinfected unless the tooth is endodontically treated or extracted. A chronic abscess, however, may be asymptomatic apart from a discharging sinus. Rarely, this may open on to the skin figure 3.
Most oral bleeding results from gingivitis see Toolbox, wjm April or trauma, but if it is prolonged, the patient should have an evaluation for a bleeding tendency. After a tooth is extracted, the socket bleeds normally for a few minutes but then clots. Because clots are easily disturbed, patients should be advised not to rinse their mouth, disturb the clot, chew hard, take hot drinks or alcohol, or exercise for the next 24 hours.
If the socket continues to bleed, a gauze pad should be laid across the socket and the patient bite on it for 15 to 30 minutes. If it continues to bleed, a hemostatic agent such as Surgicel should be placed in the socket.
If the bleeding continues, the socket should be sutured and consideration given to a bleeding tendency. Some pain and swelling after tooth extraction are common but ease after a few hours.
Acetaminophen usually provides adequate analgesia. Pain from complex procedures may last longer and should be controlled with regularly administered analgesic agents. If pain persists or increases, the patient should return to the dentist to exclude a pathologic disorder such as dry socket or jaw fracture. Localized osteitis dry socket occasionally follows an extraction, typically a lower molar extraction. After 2 to 4 days, there is usually increasing pain, halitosis, unpleasant taste, an empty socket, and tenderness.
The clinician should exclude retained roots, foreign body, jaw fracture, osteomyelitis, or other pathologic condition, especially if there is fever, intense pain, or neurologic signs such as labial anesthesia. Actinomycosis is a rare late complication of extraction or jaw fracture and usually presents as a chronic purplish swelling figure 4. A 3-week course of penicillin is often indicated.
If the patient has loss of a tooth or root into the antrum, an antimicrobial agent and a nasal decongestant are given and the object located by radiography.
A further operation is required. Patients in whom an oroantral fistula figure 5 develops should be cautioned not to blow their nose. An antimicrobial agent and nasal decongestants are helpful.
If a fistula is detected early, primary closure is possible, but others may need flap closure by a specialist. Oroantral fistula after extraction of an upper molar. The antral floor is often in close proximity to the roots of maxillary molars and premolars. Injuries to the primary teeth may be of little consequence with regard to emergency care, but even seemingly mild injuries can damage the permanent successors.
Enamel fracture of permanent teeth needs no emergency care, but dental attention should be sought later. More severe injuries affecting the dentine should be treated as urgent because there might be pulpal infection. Emergency care consists of placing a suitable dentine lining material onto the fractured dentine, so prompt treatment by a dentist within the same working day or at least by the following morning is required. Fractured roots require dental advice.
Avulsed permanent anterior teeth figure 6 can be replanted successfully in a child, particularly if the root apex is not completely formed children younger than 16 years.
Avulsed primary teeth should not be replanted. Immediate replantation gives the best results. Hold the tooth by the crown do not handle root as that could damage the periodontal ligament. If the tooth is contaminated, rinse it with a sterile saline solution, and if the socket contains a clot, remove it with saline irrigation.
Replant the tooth the right way round ensuring that the labial [convex] surface is facing forward and manually compress the socket. The child should see a dentist within 72 hours.
If immediate replantation is not possible, the tooth should be placed in an isotonic fluid cool fresh pasteurized or long-life milk, saline solution, or contact lens fluid. Otherwise, if the child is cooperative, the tooth should be placed in the buccal sulcus and dental care obtained within 30 minutes. Unsuitable and slightly damaging fluids are water because of isotonic damage as a result of prolonged exposure , disinfectants, bleach, and fruit juice.
The use of a doxycycline immersion before reimplantation by the dentist may be helpful in preventing later external root resorption. The tooth should be splinted for 7 to 10 days, with no biting on splinted teeth, soft diet, and good oral hygiene. During follow-up, the patient should be examined for root resorption, ankylosis, and tooth submergence infraocclusion , which are possible complications. Dislocation or subluxation of the mandible is commonly caused by a blow to the chin when the jaw is open.
The condyles are dislocated forward and upward anterior to the eminence, and the patient gags open. Fractures must be excluded see box. Reduction can usually be achieved by facing the patient, placing the thumb pads over the lower molars, and applying downward pressure while, with the fingers under the chin, rotating the jaw backward and upward.
If muscle spasm prevents reduction, intravenous administration of midazolam hydrochloride may be needed. After reduction, the patient should avoid wide opening of the jaw.
Recurrent dislocation is a feature of Ehlers-Danlos and Marfan's syndromes. Jaw fractures result mainly from high-velocity impact as in motor-vehicle accidents, other accidents, and assaults.
The immediate concern is to preserve the airway. All traumatized patients should be assessed according to the advanced trauma life support protocol. Other immediate life-threatening problems include intracranial hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage from other sites, and cervical spine damage. During the secondary survey, the head is inspected for lacerations and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Associated bleeding may further compromise the airway.
Jaw fractures alone, unless associated with a split palate or gunshot wounds, rarely cause severe hemorrhage. Bleeding from a ruptured inferior dental artery usually stops spontaneously but may recur if, for example, there is traction on the mandible. Severe maxillofacial bleeding may be tamponaded with craniofacial fixation. Bleeding can arise from fractured nasal bones, in which case nasal packing may be required.
If bleeding recurs, the damaged vessel must be ligated. Definitive management of fractures, despite frighteningly severe disfigurement, is not an immediate priority, but debris such as fractured teeth, blood, and saliva should be cleared from the mouth, and the tongue may be controlled by a dorsal suture. An oropharyngeal airway may be required. The maxillofacial team should be involved early on for treatment planning.
Intubation may be necessary in a patient with substantial head injury, and the inability to intubate may necessitate surgical cricothyroidotomy because nasotracheal intubation is contraindicated. The diagnosis of fracture is from the history, pain, swelling, bruising hematoma , bleeding usually intraorally , mobility of fragments and crepitus , deranged occlusion, paresthesia or anesthesia of nerves involved, and radiographic signs.
Mandibular fractures are commonly due to assault and are usually simple and not associated with other serious injuries or bleeding figure 7. If the symphysis is comminuted, the tongue could fall back and obstruct the airway, and this must be prevented. Simple undisplaced fractures may occasionally be treated conservatively with a soft diet if the teeth are not damaged.
If the fragments are excessively mobile, pain will be substantial, and early fixation is the best management.
Most fractures are managed by open reduction and internal fixation, usually with miniplates.
Cakes and Cookies — Sweet Poppy
He had gained success for his 'insane' gameplays and snipes, and starting a clan, xd he is also good friends with Fresh. The 'xd' clan is a clan channel that allows anyone to join, but mainly accepts good players.
The clan focuses on trickshotting and has reminded many of the old Call of Duty trickshotting days. McCreamy made the clan in May, Ever since then, he changed his Fortnite username from 'McCreamy' to 'xd McCreamy', mainly because he uses it in titles of him being accused of "cheating".
The Fortnite community had then started placing 'xd' in their names. Pink with Fresh Berries 3 pounds - Chocolate with Fresh Berries 3 pounds - Naked Berries Cake 3 pounds - Naked Rosemary Cake 3 pounds - Colorful Pastel Cake 3 pounds - Color Swatch Cake 3 pounds - Pink Flower Cake 3 pound - White Flower Cake Flower Top Cake 4 pound - Blue Flowers 3 pounds - Tie Dye Cake 3 pounds - Multi-Color Cake 3 pounds - Rose Cake 3 pounds - Flower Petal Cake 3 pounds - Rainbow Sprinkle Cake 3 pounds - Pom Pom Cake 3 pounds - Colorful Dots Cake 3 pounds - Blue Layered Cake 3 pounds - Light Pink Layered Cake 3 pounds - Pink Layered Cake 3 pounds - Light Pink Ombre Cake 3 pounds - Multi-color Heart Cake 3 pounds - Tall Heart Cake 3 pounds - Heart Cake 3 pounds - Center Heart Cake 3 pounds - Flower Heart Cake 3 pounds - Pink Ombre Cake 3 pounds - Pink Birthday Cake 3 pounds - Lady Cake 3 pounds - Naked Carrot Cake 3 pounds - White Christmas Cake 3 pounds - Birthday Hat Cake 3 pounds - Taken together, our data strongly implies that both knobs and eKnobs contain a so far unknown component, likely proteinaceous, which is required for force generation, subsequent membrane curvature, and resulting morphology.
Interruption of correct assembly of this factor leads to aberrations in knob formation, eventually leading to the appearance of eKnobs. In other systems, HSP40s, through their role as regulators of HSP70 chaperone activity, have been shown to have a role in both assembly and disassembly of protein complexes [ 50 ], and it is tempting to suggest that the phenotype we observe here is due to incorrect complex assembly.
Alternatively, PFA66 may be required for the correct transport of accessory proteins required for complex formation such as those proposed in a recent study [ 46 ], and thus play an indirect role in correct assembly of high-molecular weight complexes.
In support of this hypothesis, PFA66 is known to associate with J-dots, highly mobile structures within the iRBC that are also known to contain a number of HSP70s [ 16 , 18 , 19 , 24 ]. It is also feasible that PFA66 is required for the disassembly of incorrectly folded or assembled knob protein complexes and that our knockout reveals so far unknown quality control mechanisms.
Knobs are required for correct presentation of the major virulence factor Pf EMP1, and high affinity binding of such to endothelial receptors [ 51 ]. This data strongly supports the view that, even in the normal knobs present, less Pf EMP1 was correctly presented and could take part in cytoadherence. Moreover, we cannot exclude that Pf EMP1, which needs to be correctly folded to bind specific receptors, does not assume the correct tertiary structure due to the lack of the necessary chaperone-cochaperone system.
We have previously demonstrated that a knockout of Pf HSPX leads to a reduction in virulence characteristics, including cytoadherence [ 55 ]. As the unlikely possibility existed that our observed phenotype was due to a HSPindependent function of PFA66, we carried out complementation analysis with a full-length copy of PFA66 expressed from an episome, or a copy containing a HQ mutation that renders the J-domain inactive.
Despite similar expression levels and correct localisation of both fusions, only the wild type protein was able to complement the mutant knob phenotype, clearly demonstrating that recruitment of Hsp70 by PFA66 is essential for the wild type phenotype.
We therefore conclude that the effects we observed upon PFA66 truncation are due to either a negative effect of the truncated protein on proper functioning of the Hs HSP70 chaperone system within the host RBC or result from a lack of cochaperone activity via deletion of an essential functional domain SBD of the HSP Either way the results furthermore support Hs HSP70 involvement.
To regulate the function of residual human HSP70s, the J-domain of PFA66 should be able to stimulate the ATPase activity of these proteins, however several studies have demonstrated only weak functional interactions. One potential weakness of these published studies is the failure to distinguish between chaperone-cochaperone and chaperone-substrate interactions, which may produce misleading results.
To throw more light on this topic, we uncoupled these interactions and reconstituted a minimal J-domain system by fusion of a suitable substrate peptide to the J-domain derived from PFA A potential role for residual human HSP70 in host cell modification and parasite virulence has been suggested for almost 20 years [ 57 ], but to our knowledge our current study is the first to provide strong experimental evidence directly implicating human HSP70s in these processes.
To conclude, in this study we show data suggesting that correct biogenesis of knobs in malaria-iRBCs is a complex process necessitating a number of proteins, the molecular identity of some of which remains enigmatic.
Our data suggests that KAHRP, while obviously required for knob generation, may not directly provide a scaffold for knob structure. More importantly, our data also reveals that residual human HSP70 within the iRBC is involved in parasite-driven host cell modification processes.
To our knowledge, this is the first time a host cell protein has been directly implicated in parasite virulence and protein transport processes, and this observation opens up exciting new avenues not only for intervention strategies, but also for the discovery of other novel cell biological phenomena. Upon verification of the QPD mutation, the insert consisting of the PFAw promoter and coding sequence was re-cloned into the same vector to avoid mutation due to the PCR step.
All primers are listed in S2 Table. Selection-linked integration was performed according to Birnbaum et al. Parasites were synchronized before experiments using sorbitol-induced lysis [ 60 ]. Routine selection for CSA-binding parasites was performed according to standard protocols [ 22 ].
Subsequently parasites were resuspended in cytoadhesion media pH 7. After careful washing with cytoadhesion media, the remaining bound parasites were washed off and re-seeded. Following treatment, samples were processed for SEM. RSTED imaging was carried out as recently reported in great detail [ 62 ]. Images were processed using ImageJ.
Brightness and contrast were adjusted to reduce background and enhance visibility. No gamma adjustments were applied to any images, and all data is presented in accordance with the recommendations of Rossner and Yamada [ 63 ]. Antibody sources and dilutions can be found in S3 Table. For investigation of the internal structure of the RBC cytoskeleton membrane shearing was employed according to established protocols [ 46 , 64 ]. Assessment of NPP activity was carried out according to Baumeister et al.
In the growth experiments, both cell lines were diluted after every growth cycle with the same factor in order to support parasite growth. Parasites were applied in cytoadhesion media pH 7. After incubation for 1 hr at RT, non-bound parasites were washed away using cytoadhesion medium.
After washing, parasites were bound to coverslips pre-treated with 0. Imaging was performed using a Jeol microscope operating at 80kV. Statistics were calculated in prism or Excel using unpaired, two-tailed t-tests. Figs show mean and standard deviation.
The ilastik [ 33 ] pixel classification workflow is used to reduce the background in the images and enhance the foreground pixels. To segment each object in the probability map images the local maxima is used as a seed for the 3D watershed plugin. The approach allows to separate close objects and creates masks that are used to measure size and intensity on the raw images.
The culture was grown until an OD of 1. Cell lysis was performed by passing the cells two times through a MicroFluidizer Avestin, Ottawa, Canada after fresh proteinase inhibitors were added. The obtained lysate was clarified by centrifugation at The protino was subsequently collected in a gravity-flow column and washed first with The protein was then washed with After 2hs of incubation, 0.
After proteolytic cleavage, the protein was incubated with 1. PfHSPX was expressed and purified as previously described [ 39 ]. Twenty fractions one drop per fraction were collected on ice in cooled tubes. The first four fractions containing radioactivity as detected by Geiger counter were pooled, divided into 6.
Table shows primer combinations and predicted result. Consequentially, parasite proteins exported to the host cell are found in the supernatant, while other parasite proteins remain in the pellet. Results are shown for ten biological replicates. Results are shown for three independent experiments.
Included is a display of aberrant eKnob morphologies. The parasite protein aldolase ALDO was used as a loading control.
The distribution of label along the full length of the knobs did not differ between the strains and knob types, C Distance of label to the closest membrane was measured using ImageJ, revealing no difference between the strains and knob types. The parasite protein SERP was used as a loading control. We wish to thank the blood banks of the University Hospitals in Giessen and Marburg for providing blood. The great generosity of colleagues who provided reagents noted in the text should be recognised.
We thank Tim Bostick for proofreading. This is an uncorrected proof. Abstract The pathology associated with malaria infection is largely due to the ability of infected human RBCs to adhere to a number of receptors on endothelial cells within tissues and organs.
Author summary To survive in the human body, the malaria parasite invades and lives within human red blood cells. Introduction Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria in humans, malaria tropica , responsible for over million clinical cases and , deaths per annum , mainly in children under the age of 5 and mostly in sub-Saharan Africa [ 1 ]. Results Generation of PFA66 truncation and complementation cell lines Genetic manipulation via single crossover was performed using a selection-linked integration targeted gene disruption strategy [ 20 ].
Download: PPT. Fig 1. Truncation of PFA66 affects novel permeability pathway NPP activity and confers a small growth advantage Exported parasite proteins carry out a multitude of functions supporting the survival of P.
Truncation of PFA66 causes severely deformed knob morphology Knobs are electron-dense protrusions of the iRBC surface that help correctly present the major virulence factor Pf EMP1, thus facilitating iRBC cytoadhesion and concomitantly increasing clinical pathology [ 4 — 6 , 30 , 31 ]. Fig 2. Fig 3. Fig 4. Fig 5. Fig 6. Discussion Although it has long been recognised that malaria parasites export a substantial number of proteins to their host cell, the mature human RBC, the function of many of these proteins remains unknown [ 7 , 8 , 13 ].
Cell culture methods P. Membrane shearing For investigation of the internal structure of the RBC cytoskeleton membrane shearing was employed according to established protocols [ 46 , 64 ].
Statistics Statistics were calculated in prism or Excel using unpaired, two-tailed t-tests. Supporting information.
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Co-chaperone involvement in knob biogenesis implicates host-derived chaperones in malaria virulence
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Includes important updates like Google Panda, Penguin, and more. This update seems to have had a broad impact, but Google didn't reveal any specifics. This is an uncorrected proof.