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He distanced himself from the classification of his work as "non-objective color-filled painting. He also denied being a colorist - despite the fact that color was of primary importance to his paintings. Rothko often stood up for his beliefs, even if it cost him dearly. In what was surely a self-defeating act of retaliation, he refused a offer by the Whitney to purchase two of his paintings because of, "a deep sense of responsibility for the life my pictures will lead out in the world.
Initially, the idea of incorporating his work within an architectural environment appealed to him, since he had great admiration for the chapels of Michelangelo and Vasari. He spent two years making three series of paintings for this building, but was not pleased with the first two sets; then he became dissatisfied with the idea that his paintings were to be hung in the opulent Four Seasons restaurant.
Characteristically, Rothko's social ideals led him to quit the commission, as he could not reconcile his personal vision or his integrity as an artist with the ostentatious environment. In , Rothko received a large commission from major Houston art collectors and philanthropists, John and Dominique de Menil. He was to create large wall murals for a non-denominational chapel they were sponsoring on the campus of St. He generated fourteen paintings while working closely with a series of architects to construct a meditative environment with a dark palette.
The Rothko Chapel has since been the setting for international meetings of some of the world's great religious leaders, like the Dalai Lama. In , Rothko suffered an aortic aneurysm and spent three weeks in a hospital. This brush with death would shadow him for the rest of his life. He became resentful that his work was not being paid the proper respect and reverence he felt it deserved. He also began to worry that his art would have no major legacy, and this led him to work on his last major series, Black on Grays , which included twenty-five canvases and marked a clear deviation from his previous work.
However, work failed to buoy up his spirits, and at the age of 66, Rothko committed suicide by taking an overdose of anti-depressants and slashing his arms with a razor blade. On the morning of February 25, , his assistant, Oliver Steindecker, arrived at the East 69 th Street studio to find him on the floor of the bathroom, covered in blood. Many of his friends were not entirely surprised that he took his own life, saying that he had lost his passion and inspiration.
Some suggested that like others who had died before of an internal struggle, such as Arshile Gorky, Rothko had submitted to the tortured artist's ritual of self-annihilation. In the aftermath of his death, three of his best friends were appointed trustees of his estate, and they secretly transferred control of some eight-hundred paintings to the Marlborough Gallery, which had been representing Rothko for several years, at a fraction of their market value.
Rothko's daughter, Kate, took the men and the gallery to court in what became a notoriously messy and protracted dispute. During the lengthy court battle, the sometimes illegal and unethical dealings of the art world were publicly exposed for the first time. Time critic Robert Hughes cited the "Rothko case" as what essentially brought about what he called the "death of Abstract Expressionism".
Ultimately, the Rothko children won the case and received half of the estate. The Rothko Foundation then donated the rest of the works to museums in the United States and abroad. Painting consumed Rothko's life, and although he did not receive the attention he felt his work deserved in his own lifetime, his fame has increased dramatically in the years following his death.
At odds with the more formally rigorous artists among the Abstract Expressionists, Rothko nevertheless explored the compositional potential of color and form on the human psyche. To stand in front of a Rothko is to be in the presence of the pulsing vibrancy of his enormous canvases; it is to feel, if only momentarily, something of the sublime spirituality he relentlessly sought to evoke.
Rigidly uncompromising, Rothko refused to bend to the more distasteful aspects of the art world, a position upheld by his children who did nothing less than alter the entire state of the art market in their fierce protection of his life and work. Nietzsche, myth, and Jewish and social revolutionary thought were all important influences on Rothko's life and art.
He once wrote to The New York Times saying he would not defend his pictures, "because they defend themselves. Around , probably during his yearlong hiatus from painting, Rothko wrote the manuscript for a book which was to be called The Artist's Reality. However, it was never published in his lifetime, being hidden away in a manila folder labeled "miscellaneous papers" for over fifty years. It was discovered by his children in a warehouse and has since been edited by his son, Christopher, and was published by Yale University Press in These writings discuss Rothko's ideas about Modern art, myth, beauty, the nature of American art, and the challenges of being an artist in his society.
The book is most unique in that it never references Rothko's own work, but speaks from the point of view of the artist in general. While his political leanings were clearly Leftist, he maintained a highly subjective approach to theory. In The Artist's Reality , Rothko described the perception of artists in society and how they have fostered myths of creativity into reality based on their own personal fantasy lives.
He discussed the ways in which authority in its various forms had made the rules that artists must live by and that the market was the latest dictator of these rules. At the time of this writing, WWII was beginning in Europe and anxieties over conformity and tyranny gave Rothko's writing a constant sense of disquiet. Above all, Rothko championed the freedom of the artist.
The politics and poetics of Rothko's life were inseparable and his art constitutes the strongest evidence of this. As he declared in the year of his suicide, "I am still an anarchist! Viewed in the light of his suicide, many have read his paintings as windows through which Rothko sought to transcend a world in which he could not find comfort.
Throughout his writings, Rothko insisted that his work was meant to be viewed closely and intimately, not observed from a safe, sterile distance. For those who find Rothko's paintings overwhelming, it is perhaps comforting to know that he intended to communicate with his audience, not to intimidate.
Most critics interpreted Rothko's work in formalist terms, in direct opposition to the intention of the artist to convey grand spiritual drama. Consequently, perhaps, he had little patience for most professional writers on his work, saying, "I hate and distrust all art historians, experts and critics.
They are all parasites, feeding on the body of art. Their work is not only useless but misleading. They can say nothing worth listening to about art or the artist. Clement Greenberg wrote little about Rothko's work. They met in , and Greenberg was not greatly impressed by him. Later he got pompous. But he always stayed a little square. Harold Rosenberg , whose criticism had been shaped more by Existentialism than Greenberg's formalism, was in rare agreement with his rival concerning Rothko.
Writing in March in his column "The Art World," for the New Yorker , Rosenberg said, "Rothko had reduced painting to volume, tone, and color, with color as the vital element. There are several drafts of this letter to the editor, published June 13, , in which Rothko and Gottlieb respond to the Times art review by Edward Alden Jewell of their work at an exhibition at the Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors.
Significantly, in drafts five and six, they list their beliefs about modern art: "We believe our pictures demonstrate our aesthetic beliefs.. We favor the simple expression of complex thought.. We are for flat forms because they destroy illusion and reveal truth..
It's not clear how seriously his recommendations will be taken, but he remains employed by the company. Bloomberg declined to make Hoyt available for an interview. There's a certain art to the Bloomberg headline--a pile of words that somehow adds up to something meaningful, if not understandable. Let's pause for some more:. Quartz: Why everything you ever believed is a lie, in charts.
Other headlinese words-- mull , see , probe , nix --are artifacts of space constraints imposed by narrow newspaper columns. Space may also have something to do with how Bloomberg headlines got to be so odd.
Much of Bloomberg's journalism makes less sense as it gets further away from the terminal. Inscrutability can also be a ploy for clicks. Bloomberg headlines like "Bieber Joins Ex-Addicts Fighting Chase in Prepaid Market" are often just intriguing enough to find out what the hell they mean.
Certain terms alluring to Bloomberg's clientele will find their way to the top of articles that are really about something else, as in this ur-headline 63 characters long : "Steve Jobs Spurs Harvard MBA to Drop McKinsey for China Website.
Hoyt observed that Goldman Sachs makes regular appearances in Bloomberg headlines that have nothing to do with the bank: " The most egregious , 'Ex-Goldmanite Trades on Girl Power of Stiletto Networks: Review,' was over the review of a book by an author last connected with Goldman 11 years ago as a low-ranking associate.
OK, just a few more:. Within Bloomberg, the unofficial house style for headlines is beloved by many; choice examples are often emailed around the office. But the practice is hardly without critics at Bloomberg, who say the news organization should strive to be understood above all. Surely, market-moving headlines about breaking financial news, which many Bloomberg customers rely on for making trades, are almost always written with complete clarity.
Why, they ask, shouldn't everything else be held to the same standard? The Bloomberg Way , a book by editor-in-chief Matt Winkler that serves as a bible for the company's reporting, doesn't mention clarity in its section on headlines.
It advises that every headline include two or three of the following elements: "names," "surprise," "what's at stake? Some Bloomberg staffers say headline clarity was already improving before Hoyt's report, driven by some top editors. That assessment was confirmed by the financier who runs Strange Bloomberg Headlines.
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At the age of thirteen she started photographing, so her complete body of work made until she passed away at age twenty-two was closely related to Italian art and culture. Woodman was quite fascinated by the works of Florentine masters such as Giotto and Piero Della Francesca which reflected on the way she composed the shoots. On the other hand, the artist was well connected with the artistic peers of her generation.
There she made some of her most captivating photos and became friends with the young painter Sabina Mirri , who was one of her favorite models.
The photographs show a range of influences from Surrealism and the works of Duane Michals to Gothic literature and fiction. Majority of them are centered on the representation of her own body, so it can be concluded that Woodman was absorbing certain performative elements of feminist provenance.
By depicting her own naked body and a single prop, the artist combined elements of classical and surrealist sculptural poses in order to express both her personal feeling of alienation and estrangement , as well as to emphasize a general media misuse of the female body. Thus he was in the strongest possible position to be introduced into the best aristocratic circles. The second reason had to do with the character of the circles themselves.
The aristocracy based on the Austrian capital surpassed all others of Europe in its devotion to music, and much of its time and a considerable part of its fortunes — a ruinous amount in some cases — was spent in the conspicuous indulgence of this taste.
If their support was not on quite so lavish a scale, at least they employed a wind band or, like Prince Karl Lichnowsky and the Russian Count Rasumovsky, a quartet of string players. The Court Councillor von Kees was among the many who organized private concerts; a large library of music was assembled by the Baron van Swieten, a patriarch whose distinction it was to cultivate the music of Bach and Handel and introduce it to Viennese audiences. He certainly needed more than their mere approval.
The elector now had his own difficulties as a result of the military victories of the neighbouring French. He had visited Vienna in January , and Beethoven may have called on him and discussed his position.
Since many of the aristocracy had spacious accommodation or several houses, it was natural for them to provide Beethoven with lodging. One of the first houses in Vienna if not the very first in which he had rooms was owned by Prince Lichnowsky, who soon established himself as a leading patron of the composer.
Another early supporter who became a lifelong friend was the Hungarian Nikolaus Zmeskall von Domanovecz. Regular public concerts of the sort given throughout the season in London and Paris were not then a feature of Viennese musical life; there were only a few annual charity concerts and an occasional subscription concert of a virtuoso or Kapellmeister.
A glimpse of what this aspect of his life was like to Beethoven is to be found in one of his letters to Eleonore von Breuning in Bonn, to whom — because of a quarrel before his departure from there — he did not write until he had been in Vienna for almost a year.
I should never have written down this kind of piece, had I not already noticed fairly often how some people in Vienna after hearing me extemporize one evening would next day note down several peculiarities of my style and palm them off with pride as their own. Well, as I foresaw that their pieces would soon be published, I resolved to forestall those people.
But there was another reason, too; my desire to embarrass those Viennese pianists, some of whom are my sworn enemies. I wanted to revenge myself on them in this way, because I knew beforehand that my variations would here and there be put before the said gentlemen and that they would cut a sorry figure with them.
The pugnaciousness of the virtuoso is characteristic, and it was not long before he displayed his powers before wider audiences. An early opportunity came at a charity concert in the Burgtheater on 29 March His old friend from Bonn, Franz Gerhard Wegeler, who was in Vienna from October to the summer of , witnessed the preparations for this concert — or it may have been the one nine months later in December and the concerto may have been the First op.
At a second charity concert the next day Beethoven again appeared on the platform; this time he gave an improvisation. Apart from the variations dedicated to Eleonore von Breuning he had not yet published anything in Vienna. The decision was deliberate, for his op. He chose a set of three piano trios, a genre dear to aristocratic devotees of chamber music, and he dedicated it to Prince Lichnowsky.
The trios had already been heard and admired, possibly in earlier versions. But it seems more likely that he heard the trios only on his return, and expressed regret about the inclusion of the C minor one. Beethoven published his op. The subscription list contained names many of them recruited by Lichnowsky , and the subscriptions amounted to copies at one ducat roughly four and a half florins each; since Beethoven paid the publisher only a florin per copy he made a handsome profit. At all events the sonatas like the trios before them were published without any acknowledgment of pupillage.
Outwardly, however, relations between the two did not appear to be strained. On 18 December Beethoven made his second public appearance in Vienna as a composer-virtuoso, playing a piano concerto at a concert which Haydn organized and which included three of his latest symphonies, written for London.
It is probable that this was the first performance of the C major concerto. With his brothers thus established in Vienna, Beethoven now felt able to embark on a concert tour. In February he set out for Prague, travelling as Mozart had done seven years earlier with Prince Lichnowsky. My art is winning me friends and respect, and what more do I want?
He seems to have stayed for about a month in Berlin, making the acquaintance of the Kapellmeister, Himmel, as well as of Zelter and Fasch, and twice giving improvisations before the Singakademie. Beethoven and Wegeler — who completed his studies in medicine, married Eleonore von Breuning in , and set up practice in Koblenz — never met again, but they remained friends and exchanged letters from time to time.
At the end of Beethoven again travelled. He played at a concert at Pressburg now Bratislava on 23 November. The next year, , is almost devoid of incidents that have left any record. At the end of May he wrote to Wegeler that he was doing well — in fact, better and better; on 1 October he penned some warm lines in the album of Lorenz von Breuning, who was leaving Vienna to return to Bonn. Between those dates nothing is known, and it is even possible that he was seriously ill at that time.
One source assigns such an illness to the second half of the previous year, where there is also a gap in the records from July to November. The year saw the publication of several compositions: his opp. The publications of were even more assured, including the three op. Early in considerable interest was aroused by the arrival in Vienna of the emissary of the French Directoire, General Bernadotte; in his retinue was the violinist Rodolphe Kreutzer.
Both were only a few years older than Beethoven, whose acquaintance they made. Later in the year the exact date is unknown Beethoven visited Prague and gave two public concerts, as well as a private recital.
It was probably a living composer whose challenge Beethoven was finding more dispiriting. In —6 he had reacted to the brilliant symphonies that Haydn had brought back from London by attempting to write a symphony of his own in C major, but although he worked at it vigorously it remained unfinished and was abandoned. Furthermore, Haydn continued to produce masterly string quartets with unabated vigour: six had been written in and six more in Although all the works with opus numbers that Beethoven had so far published in Vienna, apart from the piano sonatas, could loosely be called chamber works, the particular genre that was most closely associated with Haydn, and indeed with Mozart as well — the string quartet — was noticeably unrepresented.
That Beethoven was only too aware of their formidable example there can be no doubt, and he copied out movements from several of their quartets in score for closer study.
Still, the challenge was one for which he now felt himself ready, and in the second half of and through the winter and spring he worked on a set of quartets. It is tempting to draw a connection between the selfconsciousness of this undertaking and a change in his working methods which coincided with it.
Beethoven had always made sketches of the compositions that he was engaged in writing, and as time went on they became more voluminous. But hitherto they had been written on loose single leaves or bifolia of music paper. From the middle of he began to make his sketches in books of music paper. The first two of the sketchbooks contain sketches for four of the quartets that he was now writing, as well as for a considerable number of other works that he completed, revised or attempted to write in the same months.
The completed works include a song, La tiranna woo , which he wrote to English words, working in part from a phonetic transcription. The sketchbooks evidently retained some value for him long after they had been filled up, for he kept them by him and preserved most of them in a growing pile for the rest of his life.
He and Beethoven soon became fast friends; indeed they were almost inseparable. This quartet was later published in a somewhat altered form as the first of the op. It is not clear how many of the six quartets had been completed by the end of ; but the ones written first were in any case revised later before being sent to the publisher.
Other friendships formed around this time were ultimately more fateful for Beethoven. In May the Countesses Therese and Josephine von Brunsvik, then 24 and 20, came to Vienna from Hungary on a short visit with their widowed mother, who wished them to take lessons from Beethoven.
Through them he became friends with the other members of the family, their brother Franz and their youngest sister Charlotte; Julie Giulietta Guicciardi, who came to Vienna from Trieste with her parents in , was their very young cousin. Beethoven was soon a welcome guest on visits to their estates in Hungary.
But the short trip to Vienna had unhappy consequences for Josephine. Josephine reluctantly assented, and they were quickly married; but Deym was in fact badly in debt, so that even financially the match had nothing to be said for it.
The visits of Beethoven to the wing of the room museum house in Vienna in which the Deyms lived must have afforded some consolation to the unhappy young countess. On 2 April Beethoven gave his first concert for his own benefit, in the Burgtheater. The former soon became one of his most popular works; the reception of the latter was appreciative, although the heavy scoring for the wind was remarked on.
His piano playing was on display in an improvisation and a piano concerto — probably the C major. Perhaps, then, the C minor concerto could not be completed in time for the concert.
Beethoven may have spent part of the summer of with the Brunsvik family in Hungary. The second half of was outwardly uneventful; it doubtless saw the final revision of the op. This was given its first performance at the Burgtheater on 28 March and was successful enough to be repeated more than 20 times.
Only a sketch of the scenario survives. In the finale Beethoven used a melody that evidently came to assume a certain emotional importance for him, perhaps even embodying something of his spirit of determination and heroism in battling against difficulties, for he used it again as the theme for two important and challenging sets of variations completed in and : the op.
An entertaining correspondence with the publisher Franz Anton Hoffmeister, who had lately moved from Vienna to Leipzig, dates from around this time. It comes as a surprise to find that Beethoven was intending to dedicate the symphony to his former overlord and employer, the Elector of Cologne. The preceding years had been harsh to Maximilian Franz. After being forced by French military successes to leave Bonn in October , and having stayed for a while in various cities, he had finally returned to Vienna in April and settled in Hetzendorf just outside the city.
One of these — his friend of longest standing, trained in medicine, discreet, remote from Vienna — was particularly suited to be the first recipient of a secret that Beethoven had kept to himself for some years and that had not yet been guessed by his circle of friends in the capital: the appalling discovery that he was going deaf.
These tidings were now conveyed to Wegeler in Bonn in a letter of 29 June , and to another absent friend, Karl Amenda in Courland, two days later. Exactly when Beethoven first detected some impairment in his hearing cannot be determined.
Perhaps he did not quite know himself, for no doubt its onset was insidious, and he probably did not regard any temporary periods of deafness or diminished hearing as sinister, especially since he had long become used to spells of fever, abdominal pain and episodes of ill-health. A young man does not expect to go deaf, and although in one account he implied that he had noticed the first symptoms in , other statements set the date somewhat later, and the crisis came only with the growing realization that his deafness was progressive and probably incurable.
At this time Beethoven had not yet given up hope that his doctors could do something for his hearing, but he could already foresee incalculable troubles both for his professional life and — what it is easy to forget was equally important to him — for his social life. As he wrote to Wegeler:. I must confess that I am living a miserable life. For almost two years I have ceased to attend any social functions, just because I find it impossible to say to people: I am deaf.
If I had any other profession it would be easier, but in my profession it is a terrible handicap. As for my enemies, of whom I have a fair number, what would they say? A curious feature of these letters, in fact, is that each includes not only a melancholy account of the despair which his deafness had brought about but also an almost lyrical portrait of his professional and financial successes.
Four and a half months later Beethoven again wrote at length to Wegeler: his doctors had been unable to help his hearing, but he was leading a slightly more pleasant life. You can scarcely believe what an empty, sad life I have had for the last two years.
My poor hearing haunted me everywhere like a ghost; and I avoided all human society. I was forced to seem a misanthrope, and yet I am far from being one. This change has been brought about by a dear charming girl who loves me and whom I love … and for the first time I feel that marriage might bring me happiness. Unfortunately she is not of my class. Such passages, and their more gloomy counterparts, are characteristic of his conflicting moods as he faced the prospect of permanent deafness and the quite unexpected threat to what had hitherto been a triumphant career.
An attitude of pious resignation, with which he tried to master such unruly feelings, did not come easily to him but found expression in the six hymn-like settings of sacred poems by Gellert op. But it is clear that for a time he was under her spell — she even boasted of this — and he must have had mixed feelings when in November she married Count Wenzel Robert Gallenberg, a prolific composer of ballet music, who was only a year older than herself. By the end of Ferdinand Ries, the son of Franz Anton Ries who had befriended the Beethoven family in Bonn, was living in Vienna, and Beethoven agreed to take him as his piano pupil.
Ries was then just 17 and he remained with Beethoven until the autumn of , when he had to return to Bonn for military service. During those four years he had unrivalled opportunities for observing Beethoven at his work, on his walks in the countryside, with his brothers and his friends, or at the social functions of the aristocracy.
His recollections of this time, set down somewhat artlessly in the Biographische Notizen which he compiled in collaboration with Wegeler in the s, form a valuably unsentimental picture of Beethoven.
These last attitudes, indeed, hardened in later life into a stance in which he felt himself a prince of art and entitled to behave as one. For several years, starting in , he was entrusted with the offer of new compositions to publishers, and with the subsequent negotiations.
But on 25 May he married Johanna Reiss, the daughter of a well-to-do upholsterer; their only child, Karl, was born on 4 September. The summer of was spent just outside Vienna in the village of Heiligenstadt. It was there, no doubt, that Beethoven put the finishing touches to the Second Symphony and completed several other works of this prolific year: the three op. He had gone to Heiligenstadt in the spring, perhaps with the thought of spending longer in the country than usual for the sake of his health and hearing.
His hearing had shown no improvement in the country, and he recognized that his infirmity might be permanent; he defended himself against the charge of misanthropy, and taking leave of his brothers declared that though he had now rejected the notion of suicide, he was ready for death whenever it might come.
The Testament has always been recognized as a poignant witness to the despair that often overwhelmed Beethoven at this time. From that nadir of despondency Beethoven seems to have recovered quickly, and probably by his usual means: hard work.
His next activities certainly indicate a firm repudiation of the notion that his deafness would handicap him professionally. You will have heard by now that my brother has been engaged by the Wiedener Theater [i.
Theater an der Wien], he is writing an opera, is in charge of the orchestra, can conduct if necessary, seeing that there is a director already available there every day. He has assumed the chief direction mostly so as to have a chorus for his music. Although Beethoven had already gained a reputation throughout Europe as a composer of instrumental music, opera was still the royal road to fame.
At the time there was something of a dearth of local talent in opera at Vienna, but from the spring of the importation of operas from Paris had more than compensated for this. Like the other Viennese, Beethoven responded enthusiastically to these operas from revolutionary France, with their contemporary realism and heroic plots copied in some cases from recent political history. An immediate bonus for this appointment was the opportunity to give a concert.
He quickly wrote his oratorio Christus am Oelberge , and it was performed on 5 April together with the First and Second Symphonies and the Third Piano Concerto with Beethoven as soloist , all but the First Symphony being new to the audience.
Another rapidly written piece was occasioned by the arrival in Vienna of the young violinist George Polgreen Bridgetower: the Kreutzer Violin Sonata op. He may also have started to look at the opera, Vestas Feuer , with a libretto by Schikaneder. But something else was evidently pressing: the inner demand to complete a great instrumental work.
But this idealization of Napoleon as a heroic leader gave way to disillusionment when the First Consul proclaimed himself Emperor in May A similar spirit pervades the so-called Waldstein Sonata op. Even the string quartets of this period, the three of op.
In comparison with the exhilarating work on these instrumental pieces, the opera dragged: by the end of Beethoven had completed less than two scenes of Vestas Feuer , and he abandoned it. For a more attractive operatic libretto had come his way, and was to capture his imagination to a profound extent. This was J. But the profounder implications that the story held for his own psychology will have emerged as the labour progressed; oppressed and isolated by his undeserved deafness, it was easy for him to identify with the unjustly imprisoned Florestan who lay alone in the dark with no apparent hope of rescue.
It may also have obliged him in due course to find new lodgings; at all events he arranged to share rooms with Stephan von Breuning, but a serious quarrel — induced mainly by Beethoven, it seems — broke out between the two friends, and by July Beethoven had moved for some weeks to Baden, a resort some 16 miles south of Vienna.
But towards the end of the year his contract for the opera was renewed, and he set to work on it again. Apart from the opera there was another reason for Beethoven to remain in Vienna.
In January Count Deym, the husband of Josephine von Brunsvik, had died; the young widow, who now had four small children, continued to spend much of her time in Vienna, and by the autumn Beethoven, who had remained in touch with the family, became a frequent visitor to the house.
He gave Josephine piano lessons. An intense relationship soon developed between them, the nature and course of which must be inferred from the contents of 13 letters that Beethoven wrote to Josephine between the autumn of and the autumn of , and from drafts of some of her replies these documents were first published in Beethoven, it is clear, was passionately in love; Josephine, though moved by his devotion and keenly concerned with his happiness, his ideals and his art, retained a certain reserve throughout and rejected any intimacy closer than that of warm friendship.
In the view of her sentimental unmarried sister Therese writing many years after these events it was consideration for her children that proved the decisive factor with Josephine. It came to an end by the autumn of , with rueful scenes and misunderstandings, and with Beethoven still asking for closer contact than Josephine was prepared to concede.
The following summer she left Vienna, and in married a Baron von Stackelberg; her second marriage, like her first, was not a happy one. She died in By the summer of the opera was complete, but censorship difficulties postponed its first performance until 20 November. This had unfortunate consequences for its success, for in the preceding weeks the conquering French armies were advancing on Vienna. Its reception was not enthusiastic, and after the third performance it was dropped.
Beethoven was persuaded to make drastic cuts, which he did only with the greatest reluctance, for while some of these undoubtedly speeded the dramatic pace, others were mutilating. For the new version he provided an overture, Leonore no. In its altered form the opera was now given two performances 29 March and 10 April ; then Beethoven was involved in a dispute with the director of the theatre, Baron Braun, and withdrew his score. It was not for another eight years that the opera was again seen on the stage.
The title Leonore is nowadays often used to distinguish the and versions from the more familiar one. The twin distractions of his opera and of his love for Josephine, and perhaps at a deeper level his slow adjustment to the fact of his deafness, may have led to some falling off in the quantity of new compositions during and But the period from the spring of to the end of must be regarded as one of prodigious fertility, with a steady stream of completed works, many of them on the largest scale.
Your deafness shall be a secret no more, even where art is involved! They were quickly introduced to the public. There were many signs of this. In April Muzio Clementi, then head of a prominent London firm of music publishers and piano makers, called on Beethoven in Vienna and secured the exclusive English rights to some of his newest compositions. This was a commission that made Beethoven unusually nervous.
And in the event the Mass in C op. After passing the summer in Baden working on the mass, he went to Eisenstadt for its first performance, on 13 September; later he spent some time at Heiligenstadt, no doubt completing the Fifth Symphony and his A major Cello Sonata op. Some of the ideas for the symphony had been jotted down as early as the first months of , but was the year that the main writing was done — and probably not before the mass was out of the way.
Nor was there any slackening in the pace of composition in the next year, In fact that summer which he again spent at Heiligenstadt saw the writing of one of his largest and most characteristic works, the Sixth Symphony, called Sinfonia pastorale. He followed this directly with the two op. Yet behind all this flurry of creative activity there was one problem to which Beethoven had not yet found a satisfactory solution.
He had no regular or dependable source of income. He could of course count on the generosity of the aristocratic circles that continued to admire him, on the fees payable for dedications, and on the sales of his music to publishers.
Yet this was little enough to rely on; he was, after all, living in the city in which Mozart had died in poverty a decade and a half earlier, partly no doubt from having no adequately paid position. It was not easy for him to arrange a concert from which he could secure the receipts, since most concerts were private aristocratic affairs, or they were given for charity — at which Beethoven usually offered his services.
There was occasionally the opportunity of obtaining one of the theatres for a benefit performance at a time when they were otherwise closed Holy Week or around Christmas , but this often led to disappointments — in , for instance, and again in In the latter year, therefore, he petitioned the Directors of the Imperial Theatres for a commission to compose an opera every year, for an income of florins; and he urged strongly his claim, whether this petition was granted or not, for an annual benefit day at one of the theatres.
The petition contained a hint that otherwise he might have to leave Vienna. The reply if any of the Directors has not survived.
No operatic commission followed, but after several postponements the Theater an der Wien was finally put at his disposal for the night of 22 December , partly in just recognition of his services to charity; so he arranged to give an enormous benefit concert. The working out of that evening contained many features characteristic of Beethoven. The programme was injudicious, consisting as it did of four hours of music, virtually all of it unfamiliar: first performances of the Fifth and Sixth Symphonies, and first public performances in Vienna of the Fourth Piano Concerto with Beethoven as soloist and portions of the Mass in C, as well as a piece written in Prague 12 years before, the scena and aria Ah!
This consisted of an introduction for piano solo extemporized by Beethoven at the first performance , several variations for piano and orchestra on a simple song melody that he had written in the s, and a short choral conclusion. Written at the last minute, the work was under-rehearsed; the orchestra, already on bad terms with Beethoven after a dispute in rehearsals for an earlier charity concert, broke down in the middle of the Fantasy and had to be restarted; Beethoven had quarrelled with the original soprano for the aria and her very young replacement was inadequate; and the theatre was bitterly cold.
Thus the success of the evening was very mixed. The financial results are not known. But although Beethoven usually had some sharp words for the Viennese, and continued to criticize them for the rest of his life, it is plain that he had no intentions of leaving Vienna if that could possibly be avoided.
Beethoven now used it to obtain a matching offer from Vienna. Although his initial conditions for remaining there included the guarantee of an annual concert and contained a strong desire for the title of Imperial Kapellmeister, their essence was a yearly salary of florins.
And this after a month or two of negotiation he was able to obtain. A document dated 1 March guaranteed that its three signatories would provide Beethoven with an annuity for as long as he remained domiciled in Vienna; since it covered accidents and old age it also amounted to an insurance policy and a pension.
The signatories were the Archduke Rudolph florins and the Princes Lobkowitz florins and Kinsky florins. There were, as will be seen, difficulties in ensuring the regularity and the full value of the payments, but once those problems were overcome Beethoven was relieved from any rational grounds for financial worry. Born in , he was destined for the church. As a boy he showed an aptitude for music, and at some time in his teens — perhaps in the winter of —4 , when he became 16 — he chose Beethoven as his piano teacher.
Rudolph treated Beethoven with consideration and humorous understanding; and Beethoven, though irked and sometimes provoked into ill-behaviour by the inevitable court protocol that surrounded a royal archduke, showed an almost childlike devotion to Rudolph, to whom he dedicated several of his greatest works. The warmth of this relationship was to be highlighted by several incidents in the months that followed the signing of the annuity.
For the second time within four years a French army bore down on Vienna, causing the imperial family, including Rudolph, to leave the city.
Nevertheless it was decided that Vienna should be defended. As a result the city was bombarded by French howitzers throughout the night of 11 May and the following morning.
The summer of was a miserable one for Beethoven. Almost all his friends had, like the court, fled from the city, and communication with the outside world was greatly restricted. Nor could he search for inspiration and recreation in the countryside. He spent some weeks therefore in copying extracts from the theoretical works of C. Beethoven intended not only the titles but the dates to be inserted in the published work.
Earlier in the year, before the French invasion, Beethoven finished the greater part of the Fifth Piano Concerto, also dedicated to Rudolph. In the spring or summer of he also wrote three songs op. Bettina obviously charmed Beethoven; rather less is known about another woman with whom he had been more seriously involved only a little earlier.
For it seems clear that in the spring of Beethoven was more or less solemnly considering marriage. Not only did he turn his attention to his wardrobe and personal appearance; he even wrote to his old friend Wegeler in Bonn for a copy of his baptismal certificate, necessary evidence of his exact age.
The woman who was the object of these concerns was a certain Therese Malfatti, the niece of Dr Johann Malfatti who had become his physician for a short while after the death of the trusted Dr Schmidt in his doctor since about It looks as though Beethoven made a proposal of marriage and it was turned down.
No doubt it was radically misconceived; there is no evidence that the family of Therese, who was not yet 20, would have found Beethoven, then in his 40th year, an acceptable suitor, and the one surviving letter from him to her, though warm enough, is not particularly intimate. He was urged to travel, perhaps because of his distracted state, but instead he merely moved to Baden for two months.
The compositions on which he worked that summer include the String Quartet in F minor op. The earlier months of seem to have been a time of comparative inactivity in composing, though a number of larger works, including the Choral Fantasy and the oratorio written several years earlier, had to be seen through the press. He evidently returned to Vienna refreshed and began work on the Seventh Symphony, which he completed in the spring of , going on without a break to the Eighth Symphony.
To judge from the sketchbook used for work on these symphonies, he at one time considered following them with a third, probably in D minor. For the second year running Beethoven decided to visit Teplitz, travelling via Prague and arriving there on 5 July. Next morning he started to write a love-letter to an unknown woman, which — since it has been discussed almost as much as any music he ever wrote — will be considered shortly. But what was even more interesting to Beethoven was the presence there of Goethe, and the long-awaited meeting between them finally took place.
The contact was a cordial one, the reactions of the two men predictable. To his friend Zelter, Goethe confided:. His talent amazed me; unfortunately he is an utterly untamed personality, who is not altogether in the wrong in holding the world to be detestable but surely does not make it any the more enjoyable either for himself or for others by his attitude. He is easily excused, on the other hand, and much to be pitied, as his hearing is leaving him, which perhaps mars the musical part of his nature less than the social.
He then revisited Karlsbad, and finally returned once more to Teplitz, still apparently in search of improved health. He applied both to the bishop and to the civil authorities, and ultimately obtained a police order to have the girl expelled from Linz.
But before it could be effective Johann played a trump card by marrying Therese, on 8 November. Nothing more is heard of him that year apart from the preparations for a concert with the French violinist Pierre Rode on 29 December, for which he completed the G major Violin Sonata op.
The rebuff by his brother was the second emotional crisis of , a year that represented some sort of watershed for Beethoven. The Brentanos were in Vienna in the years —12 , so that Antonie could be with her dying father and subsequently wind up his estate. It is clear not merely that she disliked the idea of returning to Frankfurt, where she was most unhappy, but that she did everything possible to postpone it, delaying the event until the last months of Beethoven had been introduced to the family by Bettina in , and became a warm friend not only of Antonie but of her husband Franz and their ten-year-old daughter Maximiliane — for whom in June he wrote an easy piano trio in one movement woo Since the Brentanos had not only been in close contact with Beethoven in Vienna shortly before his departure at the end of June, but were also in Prague while he was there 2—4 July and moved on to Karlsbad on 5 July, Antonie Brentano fulfils all the chronological and topographical requirements for being the addressee of the famous letter.
And there is no doubt that Beethoven, though vociferous in his condemnation of adulterous relations, was especially attracted to women who were married or who were in some other way already involved with a man.
Beethoven describes his harrowing trip to Teplitz from Prague, where the relationship reached a crisis; Antonie may have known or suspected that she was pregnant she gave birth on 8 March Doubtless the ambiguities were clarified when, later in the month, Beethoven joined the Brentanos at Karlsbad.
It initiated a long period of markedly reduced creativity, and there is evidence that he became deeply depressed. Henceforth Beethoven accepted the impossibility of achieving a sustained relationship with a woman and entering into a shared domestic routine, though he was scarcely reconciled to it; even in , as will be seen, he had by no means overcome his longing.
Some of the hints contained in the letter are stated more baldly in diary entries made about this time. To forgo a great act which might be and might remain so … O God, God, look down on the unhappy B.
But by a stroke of irony that may contain an inner truth, at this very time he pledged himself to a responsibility that was increasingly to encroach on the exercise of his art and indeed to dominate his emotional outlook in the last 12 years of his life. Caspar Carl became seriously ill with tuberculosis, and on 12 April he signed a declaration appointing Beethoven guardian of his son Karl, then aged six, in the event of his death.
At this time Beethoven too was financially embarrassed. The severe depreciation of the Austrian currency as a result of the war, leading to an official devaluation in February , had reduced the value of his annuity of florins to little more than florins. This may be one reason why Beethoven, even though he was still nursing secret sorrows, nevertheless became more of a public and social figure in the next year or so, reaching for popular acclaim by way of the concert hall and the theatre.
He not only engaged a servant, but appears to have kept him for three years. This bombastic piece of programme music, with its fanfares, cannonades, and fugal treatment of God Save the King , was thunderously acclaimed at two charity concerts on 8 and 12 December — together with the Seventh Symphony, which had not been heard before.
On that occasion the Eighth Symphony was one of its companion pieces. Beethoven agreed but stipulated that there would have to be a good many changes. The poet G. Treitschke was then stage manager at the theatre, and he undertook to make the necessary alterations in the libretto. This plays out as bad Edwardian melodrama with snarling villain Cal and his dour, armed retainer Jack Warner chasing them in and out of the bowels of the ship.
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